Effective Health Benefits of Pergularia Herb
It contains a bitter resin, two bitter principles and a glycoside possessing physiological action similar to pituirin and several sterols.
Healing Power and Curative Properties
Pregularia is pungent, laxative and antibillious. It is useful in relieving fever and inducing vomiting. The active principles of pregularia resemble pituitrin in their action.
Pregularia promotes the removal of catarrhal matter and phlegm from bronchial tubes. It is highly beneficial in the treatment of asthma. The juice from the leaves is used as an expectorant in catarrhal diseases. A decoction of its leaves is given in cough as an expectorant.
The drug possesses anthelmintic properties and finds its use in removing intestinal worms. About 24 grams of the leaves fried in ghee should be taken for a few days.
The herb is beneficial in the treatment of bleeding piles. It should be used in the same manner as for intestinal worms.
Pregularia forms a constituent of a preparation used in rheumatism. The leaf juice can be mixed with the juice of fresh ginger in the treatment. The root bark is also useful in the treatment of rheumatism. It should be given 4 to 8 gram doses with milk. The bark mixed with cow’s milk, can be used beneficially as a purgative in rheumatic complaints.
The drug is useful uterine tonic. It is beneficial in excessive uterine bleeding. The drug forms a constituent of a preparation given in amenorrhea or abnormal suppression of menses.
The juice of its leaves can be given to treat diarrhea among children
The drug has diuretic properties. It is valuable in Stranguary, that is, the discharge of urine in droplets accompanied by pain.
The herb is beneficial in the treatment of several skin disorders. A mixture of leaf juice and slaked lime can be applied to rheumatic swellings hard tumor and cysts. A poultice of the leaves can be applied to carbuncles with beneficial effect.
Stress may increase uterine cancer risk
The link between stress and cancer is not clear. But new work from Wake Forest University now suggests that stress may be a risk factor for cancer of the womb (uterine cancer). The team worked with a group of menopausal monkeys, using their social structure as a model of human stress. Subordinate monkeys were under more stress and more likely to show adverse effects to the womb lining that could progress to cancer. Changes were seen in breast tissue too, but these were not as marked.
The researchers say that stressors like social isolation or hostile social experiences might be a risk factor for cancer in women. The project also looked at the impact of drinking two alcoholic beverages a day, and found that this did not increase the risk of either uterine or breast cancer. Further research is needed to see whether this research translates into human subjects. It is also not clear if the lack of risk with alcohol would also apply to pre-menopausal women.
'Cylindrical nanoparticles more effective for breast cancer'
Scientists have discovered cylindrical and worm-shaped nanoparticles are more effective than traditional spherical ones when delivering drugs to breast cancer cells.
Cylindrical-shaped nanoparticles are seven times deadlier on the breast cancer cells. Even better - the worm- shaped drug delivery vehicles are not more toxic to healthy cells according to a study conducted by an international team of researchers and recently published in 'Polymer Chemistry'.
In this study, different polymeric nanoparticle shapes (including spherical micelle, cylindrical micelle and vesicles) were investigated, and the preliminary results suggest shape plays an important role in the cell uptake and toxicity response, according to University of New South Wales (UNSW).
The project was co-led by researcher Cyrille Boyer of UNSW School of Chemical Engineering and Australian Centre for NanoMedicine and Thomas Davis from Monash University, and also involved Bunyamin Karagoz from Istanbul Technical University.
Developing nanoparticles to target drugs directly to specific regions of the body is a growing field of medicine, and these new results suggest changing the shape of nanoparticles could reduce treatment costs and side-effects.
"What we've discovered is that a different shaped nanoparticle can have a very different effect on cancer cells, even with the same amount of drug.
"However there is still a lot of work to do and we need to test the nanoparticles in vitro with a range of cancer cells," Boyer said.
Previously, research has overwhelmingly focused on spherical drug delivery systems as they are easier to make, but the new study also presents a simple and cheap way of creating three different nanoparticle shapes - spherical, vesicular and tubular or 'worm-like'.
The researchers are now looking into whether cylindrical- shaped nanoparticles also deliver drugs more efficiently to other types of cancers.
Bay Berry: amazing health benefits
The herb contains tannins, triterpenes (including myricadiol) flavonoid glycosides, resin and gum.
The bark of the tree is aromatic, stimulant, tonic and resolvent. It is useful in arresting secretion or bleeding and in expelling wind from the stomach. It is also an antiseptic. Myricitrin in bay berry is bacterial and encourages the fiber of bile. Another constituent of the herb, myricadiol is reported to cause retention of salt and excretion of potassium.
Fevers and Cold
Bay berry is valuable remedy in fevers and cold. A hot decoction of the herb can be taken in the treatment of fevers, catarrh of mucus membranes, affections of the chest and typhoid. The powdered bark can be used as a snuff for congested nasal passages, which are relived by sneezing. The decoction also makes a good gargle for throat infections.
Bay berry is also used to treat inflammation and infection of gastro intestinal tract.
The herb taken internally can be used to treat post partum hemorrhage. It can be used as douche for excessive menstrual bleeding and leucorrhea, or white discharge.
Bay berry is highly beneficial in treating respiratory disorders like asthma, and chronic bronchitis. Its bark may be take either in a decoction or powdered form as in the case of fevers and colds.
A paste of the bark made with vinegar can be used for strengthening the gums and relieving toothache.
Wounds and Ulcers
A compress of the herb can be used for dressing wounds and ulcers. The powder of its bark can be dusted over putrid sores.
Bay berry is useful in several other diseases like diarrhea, dysentery, and chronic gonorrhea. A decoction of the herb can be taken with cinnamon in chronic cough and piles.
New technique help diagnose cancer more accurately
Scientists have developed a new technique that can diagnose cancer with a high degree of accuracy.
A team of researchers from University of California - Los Angeles and Harvard University demonstrated the technique, which uses a deformability cytometer to analyse individual cells.
It could reduce the need for more cumbersome diagnostic procedures and the associated costs, while improving accuracy over current methods.
The study analysed pleural fluid samples from more than 100 patients.
Pleural fluid, a natural lubricant of the lungs as they expand and contract during breathing, is normally present in spaces surrounding the lungs.
Medical conditions such as pneumonia, congestive heart failure and cancer can cause an abnormally large buildup of the fluid, which is called a pleural effusion.
When cytopathologists screen for cancer in pleural effusions, they perform a visual analysis of prepared cells extracted from the fluid.
Preparing cells for this analysis can involve complicated and time-consuming dyeing or molecular labelling, and the tests often do not definitively determine the presence of tumour cells.
The new method, developed previously by the UCLA researchers, requires little sample preparation, relying instead on the imaging of cells as they flow through in microscale fluid conduits.
To understand the method imagine squeezing two balloons, one filled with water and one filled with honey. The balloons would feel different and would deform differently in your grip, researchers said.
They used this principle on the cellular level by using a fluid grip to "squeeze" individual cells that are 10,000 times smaller than balloons - a technique called "deformability cytometry."
The amount of a cell's compression can provide insights about the cell's makeup or structure, such as the elasticity of its membrane or the resistance to flow of the DNA or proteins inside it.
Cancer cells have a different architecture and are softer than healthy cells and, as a result, "deform" differently.
Using deformability cytometry, researchers can analyse more than 1,000 cells per second as they are suspended in a flowing fluid, providing significantly more detail on the variations within each patient's sample than could be detected using previous physical analysis techniques.
The study was published in the Journal Science Translational Medicine.
New heart health guidelines focus on statins
Roughly a quarter of Americans age 45 and older already take statins, which include familiar brands such as Lipitor and Zocor, to treat high cholesterol. But that number could grow sharply under far-reaching guidelines detailed by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology.
At the core of the recommendations, which resulted from a four-year review of medical research, lies a new formula intended to help physicians calculate the chances of heart attacks and stroke in patients, particularly those in certain risk categories.
That represents a sea change from the approach that has persisted for more than a decade, of focusing intently on the level of a patient’s low-density lipoproteins (LDL) — the “bad cholesterol.”
Instead, the new guidelines encourage doctors to consider age, weight, blood pressure and other factors, such as whether patients smoke or have diabetes. If a person appears to have even a moderate risk of a heart attack or stroke, he or she should be prescribed statins, regardless of LDL score.
“It’s really about your global risk,” said Donald Lloyd-Jones, chair of the Department of Preventive Medicine at Northwestern University and one of 20 experts on the committee that wrote the new guidelines. “There were a number of people at substantial risk who, under the old paradigm, were not being captured.”
Heart disease remains the nation’s leading killer of men and women. About one in every four deaths in the United States, or about 600,000 annually, are attributed to heart disease, according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. More than 700,000 Americans suffer heart attacks each year, and the costs of coronary heart disease — from health care to lost productivity — exceed $100 billion (Dh367 billion) annually, the agency has said. In addition, strokes kill another 130,000 people a year.
The new recommendations call for prescribing statins to an estimated 33 million Americans who don’t have cardiovascular disease but who have a 7.5 per cent or higher risk for a heart attack or stroke over the next decade. Examples of groups that could fall into that category include white women over 60 who smoke and African American men over 50 with high blood pressure.
Roger Blumenthal, director of the Ciccarone Preventive Cardiology Centre at Johns Hopkins University, said about 50 or 60 per cent of African American men and a third of white men in their 50s probably will qualify for treatment under the new regime. African American men tend to have higher blood pressure than their white counterparts. Similarly, a majority of black women in their 60s and a third of white women the same age are likely to end up on the medications, along with most men in their 70s and older.
That doesn’t mean every man over 70 will be put on statins, said Blumenthal, who represents the American College of Cardiology on a committee at the National Institutes of Health that is helping to foster the adoption of the new guidelines. Primary-care physicians and cardiologists will use the guidelines as a starting point in treating their patients. But overall, the doctors said they expect a significant increase in the number of people taking statins, and a decrease in the use of other drugs that are prescribed along with them in an attempt to lower LDL levels.
The four risk groups include previous victims of heart attack, stroke or cardiovascular disease; people with an LDL of 190 or higher; people with diabetes; and anyone over 40 with a 7.5 per cent risk of a heart attack in the next 10 years.
Jonathan Reiner, a cardiologist at George Washington University Hospital who has treated former vice-president Richard Cheney, said the previous philosophy of focusing almost exclusively on lowering LDL levels, often by prescribing multiple drugs, was not based on “a lot of robust data”. The new approach “is reinforcing what the clinical trials have shown, and are trying to move clinicians away from practices that are not based on clinical evidence.”
He said the new guidelines might make life easier for heart patients, who currently must have their blood tested several times a year to ensure that they are meeting, or heading toward, their best possible cholesterol score. Now that may not be necessary, he said.
That’s not to say that cholesterol scores no longer matter, but rather they should be only one of numerous factors in determining who should be taking statins.
“Lower [LDL] is better, and no one’s arguing that, but once you have a reason to treat someone, they should be treated fully,” said Kim Williams, vice-president of the American College of Cardiology. “That’s really one of the bottom lines of this.”
Statins aren’t entirely without risks. Muscle soreness and fatigue are the most common side effects of taking the drugs. Other, less likely, consequences include liver damage, digestive problems, rashes or flushing, elevated blood sugar or Type 2 diabetes, and memory loss. In addition, once a person begins taking statins, he is likely to remain on them for the rest of his life.
Lloyd-Jones, the Northwestern doctor who helped develop the new guidelines, said there’s overwhelming consensus in the medical world that statins are effective and safe. “If these were unsafe drugs, we certainly wouldn’t have put the threshold where we did,” he said.
He said that while wider use of statins will probably prevent heart attacks and strokes and improve the quality of life for more patients, on Tuesday’s recommendations aren’t going to solve the nation’s looming cardiovascular crisis.
“Underlying all this is the fact we must get better with our lifestyle choices. There’s a tsunami of cardiovascular disease that’s coming, in large part because of the obesity epidemic,” Lloyd-Jones said. “This is only one piece. But there’s clearly a lot more to do.”
source — Washington Post
What role does pantothenic acid play in the body?
A It's another water-soluble B complex vitamin. The word pantothenic is derived from the Greek meaning 'from
everywhere'. This name was given because the vitamin is present in all foods, although not always in substantial amounts.
Q. What role does pantothenic acid play in the body?
A Pantothenic acid is involved in proper skin growth and nerve function, and in maintaining the health of the adrenal glands. If there is pantothenic acid deficiency these glands may become enlarged, reddened and prone to hemorrhage. Pantothenic acid is known to be involved in the production of cortisone and two other related hormones produced by the adrenal glands. These hormones play an important role in metabolism and in the body's reaction to stress, including inflammation.
Claims that pantothenic acid prevents or alleviates arthritis have been examined in several studies, One double-blind study claimed 'highly significant effects for oral calcium pantothenate [a form of pantothenic acid] in reducing the duration of morning stiffness, degree of disability and severity of pain' in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, a form characterized by inflammation in the joints and elsewhere in the body.
Q. Does it do anything else?
A. Yes. Like other B vitamins, pantothenic acid plays a vital role in energy metabolism. It's essential for the breakdown and release of energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
PANTOTHENIC ACID QUICK-REFERENCE GUIDE
There is currently no RNI for pantothenic acid, but an Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake of 4-7 mg is recommended for both men and women
Foods especially rich in pantothenic acid include brewer's yeast, liver, eggs, wheat germ and bran,peanuts and peas. Good sources include meat, milk, poultry, whole grains, broccoli, mushrooms and sweet potatoes. Most vegetables and fruits contain small amounts.
Signs of Deficiency
Fatigue, headache, sleep disturbances, personality changes, nausea, abdominal distress, numbness and tingling of the hands and feet, burning sensations in the feet, muscle cramps, impaired coordination and immune problems.
Possible Toxicity Problems
Most experts consider the risk of toxicity to be extremely low. In humans, dosages considered very large - 10 to 20 g a day - have not produced reactions more severe than mild diarrhoea and fluid retention.
Green Muscle Disease Linked To Enzyme Level
Scientists Link Enzyme Level to Chicken Meat Defect
US - After more than a decade of research into Green Muscle Disease, an increasingly common and costly broiler condition affecting chicken met quality, a team of poultry scientists at Auburn University has identified a blood enzyme that could give breeders a non-invasive tool to screen birds for susceptibility to the disease.
Elevated levels of the enzyme, creatine kinase, can signal muscle breakdown and damage. In humans, high levels of the enzyme in the blood can be indicators of heart attack, muscular dystrophy, acute renal failure and other serious muscle conditions. In broilers, they indicate the development of green muscle disease.
Technically called deep pectoral myopathy, green muscle disease is a degenerative condition of broiler chickens’ minor pectoral muscles, or tenders, that causes the muscle tissue to bruise. The discolored tissue is not discovered until processing and deboning, and then it must be trimmed and discarded, costing the US poultry industry an estimated $50 million a year in losses.
Also of concern to the industry is the occurrence of green muscle disease in birds marketed as whole carcasses or bone-in parts, because the condition is rarely detected during processing, resulting in consumer complaints.
Auburn poultry science professor Joe Hess – who, with departmental colleagues Sarge Bilgili and Roger Lien, has conducted extensive research on the disease – says the condition is caused by sudden, excessive wing flapping, especially when that occurs one to two days before slaughter.
“Green muscle disease is an exercise issue,” Professor Hess said. “If you have a house full of chickens and there’s a sudden loud noise or some other environmental stressor, they’re going to get scared and agitated and start flapping their wings. If it’s late in the growing season, that’s when the damage occurs.”
During wing movement, blood flow increases to a bird’s major and minor pectorals, or breast muscles, causing the tissues to swell. Though the swelling doesn’t affect the larger breast fillet muscle, the tender has a more rigid covering and is confined to a tighter space. The swelling so compresses the muscle that the blood supply is cut off and the tissue bruises.
Early in the team’s green muscle research, Lien perfected a technique, “encouraged wing flapping,” to assess birds’ susceptibility to the condition and determine factors that contribute to development. Using that procedure, the scientists have found that broiler strains bred for higher breast-meat yields are more likely to develop the disease, as are broilers marketed at heavier weights and, to a degree, male birds.
They also found correlations between temperature and disease incidence.
“When the weather is hot, broilers grow at a lot slower rate than in cooler weather,” Professor Hess said. “But cool to normal temperatures are periods of rapid growth, and broilers that get agitated during those periods have a greater likelihood of muscle damage.”
In their latest focus on the relationship between creatine kinase levels and deep pectoral myopathy, the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station scientists induced excessive wing activity and then measured enzyme levels one to four days after the trials. At processing, they discovered that broilers in which levels of the enzyme had jumped significantly post-flapping were far more likely to have muscle damage to the minor pectorals, leading them to conclude that encouraged wing flapping and creatine kinase levels could be used as tools in genetic selection programmes to screen for green muscle disease susceptibility.
That is good news to Randall Ennis, an Auburn poultry science alumnus who now serves as chief executive officer for the chicken division of Aviagen Group International, the largest poultry-breeding company in the world. Through a comprehensive network of global, wholly-owned locations and distributors, the Huntsville-based company delivers day-old breeder chicks to more than 250 poultry companies in more than 100 countries. In fact, almost half of the world’s broiler chickens are derived from Aviagen stock.
“We always are evaluating and looking for different tools, such as identifying genetic markers, to make our programme more efficient and allow our customers to realize genetic progress faster,” Mr Ennis said.
“Auburn’s land-grant mission to identify and conduct research on emerging industry issues is very important to Aviagen as a primary breeder,” Mr Ennis said. “In the area of green muscle disease and meat quality, we are exploring different avenues, including plasma creatine kinase levels, as a selection trait in our breeding programme.”
Effective remedies for dry eyes
Make an appointment to see your doctor to establish the cause of dry eyes.
Applying eye treatments
When using any eye treatment, apply it just inside your lower eyelid. Hold the end of the nazzle or dropper away from your eye to keep it clean.
Seek further medical advice if:
* You often have dry, uncomfortable eyes
* You develop any other symptoms
What you can do yourself
Try the following measures to relieve the discomfort of dry eyes.
* Blink frequently, particularly when you are focusing on detailed work for long periods. Take frequent rests if you are working at a computer.
* For occasional dryness, use artificial tears to moisten your eyes (see DRUG REMEDIES, right).
* Try using a lubricating ointment to keep your eyes moist at night (see DRUG REMEDIES, right).
* In centrally heated rooms, increase the humidity by using a humidifier, or place a bowl of water beside a radiator to keep the air
* Drink 6-8 glasses of water a day. Cut down on coffee, tea, and cola, as these drinks contain caffeine, which can dehydrate you.
* Wear goggles when swimming.
* Avoid smoky or polluted environments, which could further irritate your eyes.
* Fit side shields to your glasses, especially in windy or dry conditions.
Artificial tears include drops containing hypromellose (see EYE LUBRICANTS, p 181), which keep the eyes moist and help to relieve itching. Gels containing substances called carbomers (see EYE LUBRICANTS, p 181) also keep the eyes moist and may be more convenient than drops because they do not need to be applied as often. Don’t wear contact lenses while using these products.
Lubricating eye ointment (see EYE LUBRICANTS, P 181) is applied at bedtime to lubricate the eyes through the night; Ask your pharmacist to recommend a suitable product.
Physical Effects of Emotional Stress
Physical Effects of Mental and Emotional Stress
There’s a good chance your headache is due to stress — especially if you’re a woman. Tension headaches are the most common form of headaches, with 30% to 80% of adults occasionally suffering from them, and women are twice as likely to get them. Usually caused by tense muscles in the neck and scalp, tension headaches interrupt your day with mild to moderate pain or pressure around the forehead or back of the head and neck.
We’re willing to bet you’ve experienced this one and didn’t even associate it with stress. (Although chest pain can indicate much more serious conditions, so if you suffer from frequent chest pain, it’s a good idea to talk to your doctor.) The link between stress and chest pain has doctors stumped, but research has supported the theory that the two are related.
According to Science Daily, more than 20,000 people went to the hospital in 2006 reporting chest pain that was not caused by heart disease or other conditions. One study found that men are more likely than women to experience it when faced with life or work stress, and women are more likely than men to suffer from it when dealing with anxiety and depression.
Aches & pains
A hectic life or stressful event can take a toll on your muscles, with pain normally manifesting in the neck, shoulders and lower back. Experts aren’t sure why this happens but hypothesize it has something to do with the connection between stress and tense muscles or with brain chemicals. A March 2012 study found that stress is actually associated with the body losing its ability to regulate the inflammatory response, which could be related to stress pains.
Upset stomach, diarrhea, constipation & nausea
Stress and Pepto-Bismol were made for each other. Since your digestive system is highly sensitive and full of nerves, it can have a hard time dealing with your stress. You might experience stomachaches or nausea in rare, extremely high-stress situations like going through a breakup; or the symptoms might be more persistent and caused by small, daily stressors like your condescending boss or making a deadline.
“There is definitely a connection between the brain and the gut,” said Francisco Marrero, a gastroenterologist with the Digestive Disease Institute at the Cleveland Clinic. “The gut is called the little brain — it’s the largest area of nerves outside the brain.”
Irritable bowel syndrome — a condition affecting 20% of U.S. adults that causes cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea and constipation — is highly associated with stress and anxiety. Interestingly, about 60% of people with IBS meet the criteria for one or more psychiatric disorders, mainly generalized anxiety disorder, according to WebMD. Tackling the stress — whether internally or with the help of anti-anxiety medication or antidepressants (if you’re also suffering from an anxiety disorder or depression) — will most likely alleviate IBS symptoms.
Acne and other skin problems
No one knows why it happens, but your theory about breaking out when you’re stressed is probably accurate. Studies have shown that students reported increased acne problems during exam time, and stress has also been linked to otherwise unexplained itchy skin rashes.
While your hectic life won’t trigger a new case of acne, it can cause it to flare up if you’re already dealing with the condition.
Trouble sleeping or insomnia
This probably sounds familiar: You’re all cozy in your bed with the lights out waiting for sleep to come, and your brain just won’t shut off. Suddenly all you can think about is that damn project you’ve got going on at work, how you’re going to be able to afford those car repairs and whether or not you watered the plants. You’re not alone. Seventy percent of adults with chronic stress have trouble sleeping.
Most people with stress-related sleep issues deal with them at least once a week, and the majority of them experience it at least several times a week. And it’s a vicious cycle: You’re stressed so you can’t doze off, and then you’re even more stressed the next day because you didn’t get enough sleep.
The good news is that knocking out the stress should fix the sleep problems. Click here to read some of the ADAA’s advice on how to do this.
Reproductive issues: Low sex drive, erectile dysfunction, irregular periods & low fertility
While sex can be a stress reliever for some, others actually lose interest in it when they’re stressed out. The body deals with stress by producing more of the stress hormone cortisol, and too much cortisol too frequently can have a long-term effect on your body, creating a hormone imbalance and lowering the libido.
It might be difficult for men to “get it up” when they’re stressed — 10% to 20% of erectile dysfunction cases are the result of psychological factors, with stress being the most common.
And women might experience irregular or missed periods when their lives become too chaotic. When stressed, the body releases cortisol and adrenaline, and too much of it can trick the brain into thinking it’s in a fight-or-flight situation, and therefore reproductive functions like periods aren’t necessary. Adrenaline suppresses the reproductive system, and cortisol tells the brain to stop releasing estrogen and progesterone, the two hormones needed to stimulate the menstrual cycle.
Women might also deal with extra discomfort if that time of the month coincides with extreme stress — painful menstrual periods, which affect approximately 50% of women, are twice as common in women who report high levels of stress.
A few studies have even shown a connection between long-term stress and low fertility.
Your immune system takes a hit when you’re excessively stressed, which means it can’t do its job of fighting colds and infections as well. When stressed, your body releases hormones known as catecholamines, which regulate your immune system. Prolonged release of catecholamines can do the opposite and interfere with the immune system’s functioning. Additionally, stress causes the thymus gland to shrink, which isn’t helping matters since the thymus gland is responsible for making those infection-fighting white blood cells.
Therefore, all that worrying can actually increase your likelihood of catching whatever Sneezy sitting next to you on the subway has — and it can mean a longer recovery from it.
How diabetes predisposes individuals to Alzheimer's disease
Diabetes and dementia are rising dramatically in the United States and worldwide. In the last few years, epidemiological data has accrued showing that older people with diabetes are significantly more likely to develop cognitive deterioration and increased susceptibility to onset of dementia related to Alzheimer's disease. Now, a research team led by Giulio Maria Pasinetti, MD, PhD, the Saunders Family Chair and Professor of Neurology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, discovered a novel mechanism through which this may occur. The results are published online in the journal Diabetes.
Dr. Pasinetti and colleagues pinpointed changes in post-mortem brains of human subjects. They reported that gene expression was dysfunctional in the brains of diabetic human subjects, and this increase was associated with reduced expression of important molecules that play a critical role in maintaining the structural integrity of brain regions associated with learning.
Excited by this finding, Dr. Pasinetti reasoned that if the hypothesis was correct, similar conditions should be repeated in the laboratory by inducing diabetes in mice genetically predisposed to developing Alzheimer's type memory deterioration.
In fact, Dr. Pasinetti's laboratory confirmed this prediction in the mouse model, supporting the hypothesis that diabetes, through epigenetic changes in the brain, may casually promote onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Epigenetic changes are chemical changes in DNA that effect gene expression, but don't alter the actual genetic code.
"This new evidence is extremely intriguing, given that approximately 60 percent of Alzheimer's disease patients have at least one serious medical condition associated with diabetes," said Dr. Pasinetti. "What this adds is much needed insight into the potential mechanism that might explain the relationship between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease onset and progression by mechanisms through which DNA functions."
The discovery in Dr. Pasinetti's laboratory has staggering societal implications. More than 5 million are affected by Alzheimer's disease dementia, and the disease incidence is expected to skyrocket in the three decades as the population ages.
"The next question we must ask is how we can translate this into the development of novel disease prevention and treatment strategies," Dr. Pasinetti added. "If we can find out how DNA epigenetic modification can be manipulated pharmacologically, these studies will be instrumental in the formulation of novel treatments and possible preventative strategies in Alzheimer's disease.
Sexual debility: Most effective natural tips
Sex is the ultimate human experience it is nature's gift to us, if you're good at sex there's absolutely nothing like it. With great sex you will be able to have a healthy relationship it nourishes the bonding between mates and even outside the relationship you will feel better about yourself and you'll become more confident and naturally attractive. And if your weak in sex it can be truly terrible, This simple effect can lead to anxiety, you will loose your self-confidence and go into depression and incapable of enjoying truly fulfilling relationship with a women.
1. Drink an infusion of ground fenugreek seeds mixed with one cup of water
2. Eat a teaspoon of onion seeds thrice a day
3. Take at night a semi boiled egg with a half a teaspoon of ginger juice and honey
4. Take a quarter teaspoon of nutmeg with honey and a half a boiled egg an hour beofre going to bed
5. Drink a cup of milk mixed with half a teaspoon of pepper powder and eight almonds
6. Take milk with saffron twice daily
7. Eat gingelly with jaggery
8. Take three teaspoons of dry pomegranate seeds with milk
9. Take roasted cumin seeds with honey
10. Pound and mix equal quantities of dates, almonds, pistachios and quince seeds. 100 grams of this mixture, consumed on a daily basis, is said to increase sexual power.
Misdiagnosis of Cancer is a Serious and Underestimated Problem
In a survey, doctors underestimated the prevalence of cancer misdiagnosis.
The man's arrest gives national headlines to a problem that most people face with quiet devastation. Misdiagnosis of cancer is a serious issue in the United States, and it may also be underestimated. Cases in which doctors are accused of deliberately misdiagnosing patients with cancer are rare, but medical malpractice cases in which doctors failed to diagnose cancer or delayed a cancer diagnosis are all too common.
Doctors Underestimate Cancer Misdiagnoses
In a recent study released by the National Coalition on Health Care and Best Doctors Inc., more than 60 percent of doctors surveyed believed that diagnostic errors in oncology happen in 0 to 10 percent of cases. The survey included 400 doctors who work as pathologists, medical oncologists and surgical oncologists. They are ranked by an impartial review as among the best 5 percent in their specialties.
The doctors' credentials are impressive, but their estimates of errors are low. Cancer-related misdiagnoses occur between 15 and 18 percent of the time, the survey by Best Doctors said. It cited journals such as the American Journal of Medicine and BMJ Quality and Safety. According to the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the misdiagnosis rate could be up to 44 percent for some types of cancer.
Learning From Misdiagnosis
In an interview, the vice chairman of Best Doctors said the survey results were surprising. He said that the health care field does not conduct adequate evaluations of misdiagnosis to help doctors learn from these mistakes. After a patient's death or serious surgical error, physicians may meet to discuss the error and what could have prevented it, he said. That happens far less often with misdiagnosis, and in many cases, doctors may not even be aware of a misdiagnosis.
Physicians in the study were also asked about what would be most likely to improve the availability of data on misdiagnosis. Twenty-nine percent said that state and federal lawmakers should provide incentives for hospitals to take part in the gathering of confidential misdiagnosis data. Another 24.8 percent said that reporting and data-sharing should be tied to hospital accreditation, and 23 percent said the National Institutes of Health should have more resources to study misdiagnosis.
The survey makes one thing clear: Physicians, policymakers and patients need more awareness of the potential for cancer to be misdiagnosed, and we need to take steps to prevent misdiagnosis of cancer and the significant risks to patients' health.
The Effect On Patients
For patients, the effect of a misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis can be devastating. Delayed or improper treatments can decrease a patient's likelihood of a successful treatment for cancer. If you or a loved one suspects that cancer has been misdiagnosed or that a doctor should have diagnosed it sooner, an experienced medical malpractice attorney can explain your options.
Knapp & Roberts provides experienced and caring representation for medical malpractice and misdiagnosis cases in Scottsdale, Phoenix and other areas of Arizona. For more information, call 480-991-7677
New study: ‘why brain implants fail’
It’s thought that brain-computer interfaces could be used to treat a number of conditions, whether allowing a paralysed person to communicate with robotic limbs or to halt the symptoms of neurological disorders like epilepsy. However, they are usually rejected by the patient’s body before they begin to take effect.
A four-year study, which recently commenced at Case Western Reserve University on the back of a $1.8 million (£1.12 million) National Institutes of Health grant, aims to work out why this happens – and what can be done to prevent it.
According to lead researcher Jeffrey Capadona, brain implants provoke an inflammatory response that has “really limited the clinical application” of such devices to date.
“They work well in animal studies and show promise in clinical trials, but the devices don’t last long enough to really catch on. They fail at different rates for several reasons, but all fail.”
A preliminary study, undertaken in order to secure grant funding, outlined what tends to happen when an electrode is implanted in a patient’s brain. The procedure itself causes damage to nearby cells, provoking an immune system response coordinated by a gene called cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14). This causes inflammatory molecules to accumulate around the electrode and adjacent neurons to degenerate, creating a barrier between the implant and the healthy brain cells it needs to interact with.
The researchers believe the key to making brain-computer interfaces successful is to stop CD14 activity. They have already successfully demonstrated this model in mice. Similarly, it was found that overstimulating the gene causes neural recordings to suffer.
Professor Capadona now hopes that his team can identify a therapy suitable for inhibiting CD14 so that electrodes can be implanted without the adverse immune system response – similar to the anti-rejection drugs used by transplant patients.
“We have identified a drug that’s been approved for another clinical use, but which we believe patients can take and enable brain-computer interfaces to work longer,” he added.
Heart problems in childrens
There are two major types of heart problems that affect children. One is congenital, which is by birth and the other is acquired or due to unhealthy lifestyle or infection. Congenital heart disease is when a child is born with an abnormally-structured heart.
Dr. Zainul Abedin Hamdulay, M.S., M.Ch., D.N.B. (Consultant Cardiothoracic Surgeon) Consultant to Lilavati, Breach Candy, Wockhardt and Prince Aly Khan Hospitals, Mumbai says, “Congenital problems occur as the baby’s heart develops during pregnancy in the mother’s womb. Congenital Heart Defect (CHD) is a defect in the structure of the heart and blood vessels of a new born. It is the most commonly occurring heart defect in children.”
This defect depends on the conditions present at birth that can affect the way the heart functions. One of the most common birth defects, it is also a major cause of lifelong disability and infant death.
The other is Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) or a condition of damaged heart valves. It is caused by rheumatic fever, which is a result of untreated bacterial infection.
Children show symptoms and signs of congestive cardiac failure such as breathlessness, failure to thrive, poor feeding, excessive sweating and multiple admissions for lung infections.
Sometimes CHD can be simple and need not require complicated surgeries and medications. Situations wherein there is a small hole between the heart chambers that close on its own may not need any surgery or even at times medication.
If the disease is complex, such as contraction of the aorta wherein there is a tight narrowing in the aorta (the main blood vessel supplying oxygenated blood) restricting blood flow to the lower part of the body, then it requires immediate surgery. A surgery over a period of time may have to be performed to avoid unfortunate circumstances.
“If at all a child has encountered a health problem, immediately consult a paediatrician. It is best to get kids treated completely for fever and infections so that they do not become victims of RHD,” says Dr. Hamdulay.
It is also important to pay attention to what your child eats. Make sure they consume healthy and hygienic food. Physical hygiene is also important, especially cleaning the teeth properly.
Abnormal heart sound or heart murmur when listening to the heartbeat can also indicate trouble in toddlers.
“The treatment and medicines used and how well the baby responds to them depends on the congenital heart condition. Many defects need to be followed carefully. Some will heal over time, while others will need to be treated,” Dr. Hamdulay.
Some congenital heart diseases can be treated with medication alone. Others need to be treated with one or more heart surgeries.
As congenital heart disease is a birth defect, it cannot be avoided. Thus, care should be taken when your child is in the womb. It is important to:
1. Inform your doctor about your pregnancy before starting any medication.
2. Avoid smoking and alcohol intake.
3. Get vaccinated for flu or fever.
4. Avoid contact with people who have infection.
5. Have your blood sugar checked and maintain it.
6. It is also advised to go for 2D echo to assess the heart condition of the baby in womb.